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Basic "bump" API using Rails

Johan ZietsmanJohan Zietsman

A protocol to link mobile devices through device bumping, a technique that requires accurate device geolocation.

This post will show how to create a basic "bump" API, it does have several shortcomings but will demonstrate the essential components required to get started. The code can be found on github.

How does bump work?

The basic operation of the bump protocol breaks down into 2 parts an app running on a mobile device capable of sensing a "bump" using its sensors and a server that receives these bump events via some mechanism like an API. In the event of a bump the device sends basic information like device id and coordinates to a server. The server in turn uses an algorithm to match the bump to other recent bump events in the vicinity of the received bump and proceeds to pair up the devices. This post will focus on the server part of the protocol.

Environment

System requirements include:

Rvm, Ruby & Rails

It is not required but a good idea to setup rvm to help you manage different ruby versions. Another good practice is to create gemsets per project, it has the benefit of keeping dependencies isolated.

rvm use 2.2.1@rails_bump_protocol --create  
gem install rails  

Postgres & PostGIS

I chose Postgres because of PostGIS which is a spatial database extender for Postgres. This will form the backbone of the solution which is to detect bumps in close proximity. Most of the instructions I got out of the ubuntu wiki page but the gist of it is:

sudo apt-get install postgresql postgresql-contrib postgresql-client postgis postgresql-9.3-postgis-2.1

sudo su postgres  
createuser -s rails_bump  
psql  
\password rails_bump
\q

Rails app

Generate a new rails app in your project directory using
rails new rails-bump-protocol - I'm not sure about the rails app naming convention, after quick google search I could find examples with both "-" and "_" to separate terms.

Next step is to add the required gems to the project. RGeo is an Active Record extension that provides spatial data types and spacial queries. Puma is used to ensure that the app can handle concurrent requests.

Change the Gemfile:

gem 'pg' # replace 'sqlite3'  
gem 'rgeo'  
gem 'activerecord-postgis-adapter'  
gem 'rgeo-geojson'  
gem 'puma'  

The database.yml file needs to be amended to switch to the postgis adapter.

default: &default  
  adapter: postgis
  pool: 5
  timeout: 5000
  schema_search_path: public
  username: rails_bump
  password: <password>
  host: localhost
  port: 5432

development:  
  <<: *default
  database: rails_bump_protocol_dev


test:  
  <<: *default
  database: rails_bump_protocol_test

Finally install the gems and migrate the database.

bundle install  
rake db:setup  
rake db:gis:setup  

BumpEvent Resource

The solution is backed by two model objects, BumpEvent which represents a bump received from a device and a BumpEventMatch which is a link between 2 bump events.

Class Diagram

Since I'm a complete rails noob, I'm going to avoid getting the naming convention wrong and just generate the resource.

rails g resource BumpEvent device_id:string lonlat:st_point --no-fixture --no-helper --no-assets

rails g model BumpEventMatch bump_event:references  

The generated migration files will need some specifics applied. First up the CreateBumpEvents migration. The :lonlat column needs to be marked as :geographic to indicate that it will contain longitude and latitude data. We also need to add a spatial index to :lonlat since most queries would be around the location.

class CreateBumpEvents < ActiveRecord::Migration  
  def change
    create_table :bump_events do |t|
      t.string :device_id
      t.st_point :lonlat, :geographic => true

      t.timestamps null: false
    end
    add_index :bump_events, :lonlat, using: :gist
  end
end  

Next up is the CreateBumpEventMatches migration, it needs the foreign key settings in addition to the unique index on :bump_event_id and :matched_event_id

class CreateBumpEventMatches < ActiveRecord::Migration  
  def change
    create_table :bump_event_matches do |t|
      t.references :bump_event, index: true, foreign_key: true
      t.references :matched_event, index: true
      t.timestamps null: false
    end

    add_foreign_key :bump_event_matches, :bump_events, column: :matched_event_id
    add_index :bump_event_matches, [:bump_event_id, :matched_event_id], unique: true
  end
end  

After doing some googling, I came across a great tutorial on self-referential associations and extracted just the parts I needed from it. As the diagram indicates, a BumpEvent has many BumpEvent through BumpEventMatches. The other parts to note are the named scopes which makes for code that reads better.

class BumpEvent < ActiveRecord::Base

  has_many :bump_event_matches
  has_many :matched_events, through: :bump_event_matches,
                            dependent: :destroy

  scope :recent, ->() { where('bump_events.created_at >= :time_ago',:time_ago => Time.now - 10.seconds) }
  scope :nearby, ->(point) { where('ST_Distance(lonlat, :point) < :distance',:point => point.as_text, :distance => 10) }

  scope :not_matched_to, ->(bump_event_id) {
    where.not(id: BumpEventMatch.select(:matched_event_id).where(bump_event: bump_event_id))
  }

  scope :bump_matches, ->(bump_event) {
    recent.nearby(bump_event.lonlat).not_matched_to(bump_event.id).where.not(id: bump_event.id)
  }


  def link_to_nearby_bumps()
    matched_events << BumpEvent.bump_matches(self)
  end

end  
class BumpEventMatch < ActiveRecord::Base  
  belongs_to :bump_event
  belongs_to :matched_event, class_name: "BumpEvent"
end  

Controller & Routes

The controller only needs to support a subset of the RESTFul actions, POST to create a BumpEvent and GET to retrieve it. It's a good idea to separate API controllers from the rest of the application controllers, hence I namespaced and versioned the resource.

Rails.application.routes.draw do  
  namespace :api do
    namespace :v1 do
      resources :bump_events, only: [:create, :show]
    end
  end
end  

The generated bump_events_controller.rb needs to be moved into controllers/api/v1 to match the namespace defined in the routes file. We also need to tell rails that API is an acronym to facilitate defining the module accordingly instead of Api like convention would dictate.

 ActiveSupport::Inflector.inflections(:en) do |inflect|
   inflect.acronym 'API'
 end

The basic implementation of the controller is rudimentary and would not scale well. The create method saves the BumpEvent after decoding the JSON representation of the latitude/longitude which follows GeojSON format. Then follows the goofy bit, loop 10 times, sleeping for a second between loops and then linking any BumpEvents that the system might have received in the last second.

module API  
  module V1
    class BumpEventsController < ApplicationController

      def show
        event = BumpEvent.find(params[:id])
        render json: event, status: 200

      end

      def create
        bump_event = BumpEvent.new
        bump_event.device_id = bump_event_params[:device_id]
        bump_event.lonlat = RGeo::GeoJSON.decode(bump_event_params[:lonlat], json_parser: :json)

        if bump_event.save
          (1..10).each do
            sleep 1
            bump_event.link_to_nearby_bumps
          end
          render json: bump_event.to_json(include: {matched_events: {only: [:id, :device_id]}}),
            status: 201, location: api_v1_bump_event_url(bump_event[:id])
        end

      end

      private


      def bump_event_params
        params.require(:bump_event).permit(:device_id, lonlat: [:type, coordinates: []])
      end

    end
  end
end  

Tweaks

Considering the fact that API's are usually stateless, the CSRF protection behavior needs to change to :null_session. Any other way would make the API calls fail due to an invalid CSRF token.

class ApplicationController < ActionController::Base  
  protect_from_forgery with: :null_session
end  

Due to the primitive implementation of the Controller the rails app needs to be configured to allow concurrency since we would need at least two concurrent requests to facilitate a match.

module RailsBumpProtocol  
  class Application < Rails::Application
    ...   
    config.allow_concurrency = true
  end
end  

The last tweak is to change the default JSON generator for spatial types to the GeoJSON generator provided by RGeo. Add a new file config/initializers/rgeo.rb

RGeo::ActiveRecord::GeometryMixin.set_json_generator(:geojson)  

Basic test

At this point you should be able to test the API, but first the DB needs to be migrated

rake db:migrate  
rails s Puma  

Open up two separate terminals and issue the below curl command in quick succession from both of them

curl -H "Content-Type: application/json" -X POST -d '{"device_id":"'$RANDOM'","lonlat":{"type":"Point", "coordinates":[-122.3989885,37.7905576]}}' http://localhost:3000/api/v1/bump_events  

You should receive a 201 response code and a body similar to:

{
  "id": 64,
  "device_id": "21985",
  "lonlat": {
    "type": "Point",
    "coordinates": [
      -122.3989885,
      37.7905576
    ]
  },
  "created_at": "2015-12-31T04:30:53.518Z",
  "updated_at": "2015-12-31T04:30:53.518Z",
  "matched_events": [
    {
      "id": 63,
      "device_id": "6737"
    }
  ]
}

Conclusion

Although this solution has a few weaknesses, it does provide the basic components of a working prototype. To get past the 10s sleep one might consider a polling solution from the device or maybe some other mechanism for pushing the matched events back to each device.

An alternative approach may be to return immediately and let each bump event take care for linking both ways during creation. Each device can then request all the matches some time after the initial bump, thereby moving the delay to the client device.

The source code is available on github.

Curious software developer, motorcycle enthusiast, rugby fanatic and biltong connoisseur. My code always works sometimes.